Fullstack Academy A to Z Glossary
Welcome to the Fullstack Academy guide to everything from Hello, World to booleans and from Fullstaffers to NERD stack.
Explore all kinds of tech terms to get you up to speed.

An algorithm is a finite sequence of well-defined, computer-implementable instructions, typically to solve a class of problems or to perform a computation.

Anita B.Org

AnitaB.org helps women make significant contributions to technical fields. Its programs and awards highlight the accomplishments of women technologists, while its events and communities enable women to establish their peer networks.


Angular is a TypeScript framework maintained by Google that replaces the original AngularJS JavaScript framework.


AngularJS is a JavaScript framework mainly maintained by Google and by a community of individuals and corporations to address many of the challenges encountered in developing single-page applications. It is currently (version 1.7.x as of January 2020) on long term support and rarely used for new projects, having been superseded by Angular.


API is a set of programming code that enables data transmission between one software product and another. It specifies how software components should interact.


The Fullstack Academy assessment ensures that you’re ready for the software immersive program. It includes a series of questions that test your programming knowledge and your ability to think logically.

Admissions Prep

A workshop offered at least once before every deadline to provide a space for applicants to run through the admissions exam with the help of a member of Fullstack’s academic team. 


We use "alumni" when referencing a group of grads from any Fullstack program. We encourage you to use "alum" or "alums" in informal conversations and emails.


The back-end refers to the server-side of an application and everything that communicates between the database and the browser. Back-end developers make updates and changes and monitor the functionality of the site.

Black Hat Hacker

Fullstack Cybersecurity Bootcamp students learn to defend against black hat hackers—hackers who violate computer security for personal gain or malicious intent. Fullstack trains white hat hackers who hack with good intentions and permission.


Boolean, or boolean logic, is a subset of algebra used for creating true/false statements.


A bootcamp is an intense, accelerated form of learning. 

Bootcamp Prep (BCP)

Bootcamp Prep is a preparatory coding course offered by Fullstack Academy to prepare students to succeed in a software immersive program. 

Bootcamp Prep - Vestibule (BCP-V)

Bootcamp Prep - Vestibule is an exclusive course for students participating in the Web Development Fellowship (WDF). It enables beginners with the skills they need to succeed in the immersive portion of the program and challenges them to think critically and start solving coding problems. 


C is a general-purpose, procedural computer programming language supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope, and recursion, while a static type system prevents unintended operations. 


C++ is a general-purpose programming language as an extension of the C programming language. 


C# is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, lexically scoped, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented, and component-oriented programming disciplines.

Capstone Project

During the Senior Phase of Fullstack Academy’s immersive programs, students create a capstone project to show off what they’ve learned and to start building their portfolios.

California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly)

Located in San Luis Obispo, California, Cal Poly was Fullstack’s first university partner. The curricula used for the Cal Poly bootcamps were developed at Fullstack. The first Cal Poly part-time bootcamp offered was web development. In 2020, a cybersecurity bootcamp will be launched.

Career Success

The Career Success Program prepares graduates of FSA, GH and WDF for the job search process. Our Career Coaches have deep expertise in Coaching, HR, and Recruiting best practice, as well as industry knowledge on Technical Interviews and engineering team needs.

All students enrolled in Full-time immersive programs are required to complete the Career Success programming pirot to graduation. Our program includes resume, LinkedIn and pitch reviews, as well as behavioral interview prep. We also require at least two meetings with your dedicated Career Coach prior to graduating and attending our Launch Day event. 

Launch Day is our hiring event, which occurs post graduation, where new grad meet ~15-25 employers looking to hire junior engineers.

We operate with the following team values: empathy, transformation, continuous learning, holistic approach, and goal-orientation.


A cipher is an algorithm used to create secret messages, and ciphertext is a term used to refer to the message.


CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets. The skeleton of a web page, CSS allows you to stylize what you’re working on (this includes font, colors, and layout) and enables you to create a uniform look across your website—and lets you easily change styles across several pages at once.

Chicago Campus

Fullstack Academy’s Chicago campus was founded in 2016 after partnering with The Starter League, which was founded by Neal Sáles-Griffin.


A verb that exemplifies what we teach you how to do at Fullstack Academy. While it’s not a secret, code is what we use to create web pages and applications and a more formal way to put it is the instructions a programmer writes when creating a program.


Something you’ll be able to do when you complete a software engineering immersive program at Fullstack Academy, coding is how you create codes from one language to another.


A specific group of students enrolled in Fullstack’s software immersive. We use 4-digit numbers to identify them. The first two indicate the year, and the second two indicate the month the students enroll. Cohort 2004 is a group of students who are starting the immersive program in April of 2020.

The Fullstack Community

We provide an inclusive and diverse learning environment. We’re team-oriented and support diversity and inclusion in tech because it leads to better results. We have created dedicated programs, the Grace Hopper Program and the Web Development Fellowship, and we are also champions for diversity and inclusion across all our programs. We have check-ins with our students regularly because we’re all about setting students up for success. We have an active career services team and a strong alumni network—you’ll meet a community of people you can lean on for your second and third jobs.

Compiled Language

With a compiled language, your code needs to be “compiled” or reduced to 1s and 0s for the machine to run. They also generally produce fewer bugs, as if it is compilable, it is executable, but compiling can be a time-consuming step in the development process. This contrasts with interpreted languages, that often require a secondary language to translate it into 1s and 0s. For example, some people argue JS is interpreted. In google chrome, for example, there is an engine called V8 (written in C++) that interprets each line of JS one at a time

Command-Line Interface

A command-line interface (CLI) is a text-based user interface (UI) used to view and manage computer files. Command line interfaces are also called command-line user interfaces, console user interfaces, and character user interfaces.


Cybersecurity, computer security, or information technology security is the protection of computer systems and networks from the theft of or damage to their hardware, software, or electronic data, as well as from the disruption or misdirection of the services they provide. Fullstack Academy offers a Cybersecurity Bootcamp.

Cybersecurity Bootcamp

Fullstack Academy’s Cybersecurity Bootcamp enables students to get the skills they need to land a high-paying cybersecurity job, build a stable career, and fight cybercrime. Originating within Fullstack’s NYC campus, it exists as part-time and full-time curriculums and has extended to Fullstack university partners.


CompTIA Cybersecurity Analyst (CySA+) is an IT workforce certification that applies behavioral analytics to networks and devices to prevent, detect and combat cybersecurity threats.

Cyber Analyst

Cyber intelligence analysts, also known as “cyber threat analysts,” are information security professionals who use their skills and background knowledge in areas like network administration or network engineering to help counter the activities of cybercriminals such as hackers and developers of malicious software. Many graduates of Fullstack’s Cybersecurity Bootcamp are hired as cyber analysts.


Located in Pasadena, California, Caltech is one of Fullstack’s university partners, offering a cybersecurity training program as of fall 2020.

Climb Credit

Climb focuses on financing career-building programs to help students get a high ROI from their education. It also provides loans based on your future income as opposed to the salary you’re making now. You can complete the online application in five minutes with no impact on your credit until you accept the loan.


A database is an organized collection of data, generally stored and accessed electronically from a computer system. 

Data Engineer

Data engineers build and maintain the organization’s data pipeline systems. Data pipelines include the journey and processes that data undergoes within a company. 

Declarative Coding Language

A style of programming in which programs describe their desired results without explicitly listing commands or steps that must be performed. While most languages don’t fit perfectly within one or the other, declarative examples include SQL, CSS, HTML, jQuery, and React.


The practice of removing bugs from a line of code or software application.

Document Object Model

The Document Object Model (DOM) is an application programming interface (API) for HTML and XML documents. It defines the logical structure of documents and the way a document is accessed and manipulated.

Demo Day

Demo Day is when students share recorded demos of their Capstone Projects for friends, family, and prospective employers.


Express.js, or simply Express, is a web application framework for Node.js, released as free and open-source software under the MIT License. It is designed for building web applications and APIs. It has been called the de facto standard server framework for Node.js.


Fullstack’s Flex Program (available in both NYC and Chicago) provides access to a high-quality education while giving students the resources to continue working and attending to their responsibilities. 

Flight (CS term)

Flight is the time period immediately following graduation, though it is focused on the first 6 months. During Flight, graduates are expected to be in touch with their assigned Career Coach weekly or bi-weekly via channels such as zoom, phone, or slack. These regular meetings help with accountability on the job search, and allow the Coaches to actively engage with the alum as they are navigating the process in real time.

For our Grace Hopper program, there are stricter requirements around job search expectations in order to continue to defer tuition.


Financial technology, often shortened to FinTech, is the technology and innovation that aims to compete with traditional financial methods in the delivery of financial services.


A part of a computer system or network which is designed to block unauthorized access while permitting outward communication.


A three-week prep course for students accepted into a bootcamp program taught through on-demand video lectures and workshops that gets students to the same level before they come to campus. 


A framework, or software framework, is a platform for developing software applications. It provides a foundation on which software developers can build programs for a specific platform.


The “front-end” refers to the look, feel, and design of the site. Front-end developers analyze code, design, and debug applications along with ensuring a seamless user experience. 

Friends and Family Night

Students get to invite friends and family to campus to do a trial presentation of their capstone project and have a fun mixer to celebrate completion of the program. 

Fullstack Academy

Founded by Nimit Maru and David Yang in 2012, Fullstack Academy (FSA) is a top-ranked coding bootcamp renowned for providing immersive, fullstack JavaScript web development training using the NERD stack (Node.js, Express, React, Databases using SQL). 

Fullstack Engineer

A fullstack engineer works cross-functionally on the full “stack” of technology, i.e., both the front-end and back-end.

Fullstack JavaScript

The language we teach at Fullstack Academy. JavaScript is a true “fullstack” language because it runs on both the front- and back-end of web applications.


One of Fullstack’s brand values, we’re laser-focused on what matters most: giving our students an invaluable education built on strong foundations so they can thrive in their first coding job and every coding job after.


A popular website that allows developers to store their projects and collaborate with like-minded people.


Go, also known as Golang, is a statically typed, compiled programming language designed at Google by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson. Go is syntactically similar to C, but with memory safety, garbage collection, structural typing, and CSP-style concurrency.

Grace Hopper

Grace Brewster Murray Hopper was an American computer scientist and United States Navy rear admiral. One of the first programmers of the Harvard Mark I computer, she was a pioneer of computer programming and now serves as the inspiration behind the Grace Hopper Program.

Grace Hopper Celebration

Cofounded by Dr. Anita Borg and Dr. Telle Whitney in 1994 and inspired by the legacy of Admiral Grace Brewster Murray Hopper, the AnitaB.org flagship event Grace Hopper Celebration brings the research and career interests of women in computing to the forefront.

Grace Hopper Program

Fullstack Academy’s Grace Hopper program is a top-ranked immersive coding bootcamp in NYC and Chicago for women+-identifying applicants that offers a supportive and inclusive community.

Grace Shopper

Grace Shopper is a project in which students build a fully functional e-commerce website.


Aside from its obvious definition as a search engine and major tech company, Google is also one of Fullstack’s Hiring Partners. Google works with Fullstack students in a number of ways: sending speakers to provide algorithm help, bringing Fullstack students onto campus for field trips, and (of course) participating in Hiring Day.

Hello, World

Veteran software developers know the Hello, World program as the first step in learning to code. The program, which outputs some variant of “Hello, World!” on a device’s display, can be created in most languages, making it some of the most basic syntax involved in the coding process. 

Hiring Day

Hiring Day is a hybrid interviewing and networking event we host for our recently graduated alums. This culminating experience gives our candidates their launch into their tech careers. Hiring Day runs every 7 weeks with our cohorts.


HTML stands for “Hypertext Markup Language.” HTML is the language used to create webpages. “Hypertext” refers to the hyperlinks that an HTML page may contain. “Markup language” refers to the way tags are used to define the page layout and elements within the page.


Hypertext is text displayed on a computer display or other electronic devices with references to other text that the reader can immediately access. Hypertext documents are interconnected by hyperlinks, which are typically activated by a mouse click, keypress set or by touching the screen.

Imperative Coding Language

A style of programming in which programs describe their desired results by explicitly listing commands or steps that must be performed. While most languages don’t fit perfectly within one or the other, imperative examples include Go, Python, Java, and C++.

Intro to Coding

A Fullstack online, self-paced course that teaches the basics of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.


An income share agreement (ISA) is a financial obligation, which, in exchange for the training received from Fullstack, a student agrees to pay back a percentage of their post-program income over a defined period of time. Fullstack Academy started using them in 2020.

If/Else Statements

An if/else statement executes a block of code if a specified condition is true. If the condition is false, another block of code can be executed.


One of Fullstack’s brand values, our obsession with outcomes is changing the world. We transform the lives of our grads by arming them with the skills they need to transform workplaces, communities, and economies.

Intellectually Curious

One of Fullstack’s brand values, we’re known for being curious overachievers. We remain an authority on the most important topics in tech because we’re experts at adapting: we’ve learned how to learn.


Interface is an exclusive meet-and-greet event for accepted students of an upcoming cohort at Fullstack and Grace Hopper's web development bootcamps.


Information security, sometimes shortened to Infosec, is the practice of protecting information by mitigating information risks.

Internet Service Provider

An internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the internet.


The basis of our curriculum and often abbreviated JS, JavaScript is a high-level programming language with curly-bracket syntax, dynamic typing, prototype-based object-orientation, and first-class functions.


jQuery is a JavaScript library designed to simplify HTML DOM tree traversal and manipulation, as well as event handling, CSS animation, and Ajax.

Junior Phase

The Junior Phase is the first part of the on-campus immersive program. It’s the most intense, and students learn everything from front-end to back-end technologies. 


Java is a general-purpose programming language that is class-based, object-oriented, and designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.


JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) is a lightweight data-interchange format that’s easy for humans to read and write and easy for machines to parse and generate.

Kali Linux

Kali Linux is a Linux distribution that is specialized for cybersecurity. It is an open-source product that involves a lot of customization for penetration testing, which helps companies to understand their vulnerabilities.


A Kernel is the central part of an operating system. It manages the operations of the computer and the hardware, most notably memory and CPU time.


Linux is a family of open-source Unix-like operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991, by Linus Torvalds. Linux is typically packaged in a Linux distribution.

Louisiana State University (LSU)

Located in Baton Rouge, LA, LSU has partnered with Fullstack to provide part-time bootcamps in web development and cybersecurity. Both programs will launch in 2020.


Software that is specifically designed to disrupt, damage, or gain unauthorized access to a computer system.


Martech is the blending of marketing and technology. 

The Fullstack Method

Our unique and foundational teaching approach enables students to thrive. By teaching students both front-end and back-end technologies in one language—JavaScript—we give them the tools they need to launch their careers and prepare them to easily and quickly master any employer’s tech stack. Our students have learned how to learn tech. We’re the most sought-out bootcamp for a reason: our comprehensive, challenging, and meticulously designed curriculum transforms our students into the most in-demand coders in the country.

Mobile Applications

Mobile applications, also referred to as mobile apps or simply apps, are computer programs or software applications designed to run on a mobile device such as a phone, tablet, or watch.


A system of computers that can communicate with one another. 

NERD Stack

Fullstack Academy’s curriculum focuses on the NERD Stack, which includes Node.js, Express, React, and Databases using SQL.

New York City Campus

Fullstack Academy’s first location, our Financial District campus cements our influence on the NYC tech scene.


Node.js is an open-source, cross-platform, JavaScript runtime environment that executes JavaScript code outside of a browser.

NYC Tech Talent Pipeline

Launched in 2014, the NYC Tech Talent Pipeline (TTP) is an industry partnership designed to support the growth of the City's tech sector and deliver quality jobs for New Yorkers and quality talent for New York's businesses. Fullstack Academy partners with the TTP on its Web Development Fellowship program.


Open-source is used to denote software for which the original source code is made freely available and may be redistributed and modified.


The Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) is an online community that produces freely-available articles, methodologies, documentation, tools, and technologies in the field of web application security.

Pair Programming

Pair programming is a popular software development practice, in which programmers tackle code in pairs. One programmer writes actual code, while the other gives high-level direction and reviews each line of code, and the two typically switch every few minutes.


Postgres (PostgreSQL) a free and open-source relational database management system emphasizing extensibility and technical standards compliance.


Programming means to program a machine to perform using a set of instructions. It’s the formal act of writing code but on a much higher level.

Project Manager

Project managers guide product success and lead cross-functional teams that improve it. They set strategy, maps, and feature definitions for a product or product lines.


Python is an interpreted, high-level, general-purpose programming language. Its design philosophy emphasizes code readability with its notable use of significant whitespace.

Penetration Tester

One of the roles Fullstack Cybersecurity Bootcamp students are prepared for, a penetration tester is a type of network security consultant who tries to break into or find possible exploits in different computer systems and software.

Quality Assurance (QA) Engineer

QA engineers are responsible for writing software to validate application quality. They create automated tests, tools, and methods to ensure products and processes run as intended.


React is a JavaScript library for building user interfaces. It is maintained by Facebook and a community of individual developers and companies. React can be used as a base in the development of single-page or mobile applications. It’s similar to Angular, VueJs, Ember, and Backbone.


Recursion in computer science is a method where the solution to a problem depends on solutions to smaller instances of the same problem (as opposed to iteration).


Redux is an elegant and powerful state-management library that, like React, is operated by Facebook.

Responsive Web Design

Responsive Web design is the approach that suggests that design and development should respond to the user’s behavior and environment based on screen size, platform, and orientation


A repository, often called a repo, is a storage location for software packages.

The Fullstack Reputation

Companies, universities, and governments across the country trust Fullstack Academy to train their students. We’re trusted by top hiring partners like Google and Amazon, in addition to the city of New York (through our Cybersecurity program), the NYC Tech Talent Pipeline (through our WDF program), and partner universities across the US, including Cal Poly, the University of San Diego, and the University of Northern Florida.


An open-source, object-oriented programming language with a focus on simplicity and productivity.

Ruby on Rails (RoR)

Ruby on Rails, or Rails, is a server-side web application framework written in Ruby under the MIT License.

Sales Engineer

Sales engineers specialize in tech or scientifically advanced products and sell these products or services to businesses. They have extensive knowledge of the parts and products sold.


Semantics in IT is a term for the ways that data and commands are presented. Semantics is a linguistic concept separate from the concept of syntax, which is also often related to attributes of computer programming languages. The idea of semantics is that the linguistic representations or symbols support logical outcomes, as a set of words and phrases signify ideas to both humans and machines.

Senior Phase

The Senior Phase is the second part of the on-campus software immersive. In this phase, students put their knowledge to use by building fully functional web applications from scratch.

Single-Page Applications (SPAs)

A single-page application (SPA) is a web application or web site that interacts with the user by dynamically rewriting the current page rather than loading entire new pages from a server.


Computer software is a general term that describes computer programs. Related terms such as software programs, applications, scripts, and instruction sets all fall under the category of computer software.

Software Applications

Software Applications are programs or groups of programs designed for end users. By the end of a Fullstack immersive program, students have created multiple apps, including word processors, spreadsheets, web browsers, email clients, media players, file viewers, games, photo editors, and more.

Software Developer

Sometimes used interchangeably with “Software Engineer,” in general, developers focus on a single project as a part of the whole. To build out a software solution, they rely on informal methods more than math and science principles. They don’t need to prove the viability of their design with empirical evidence and are given more creative reign in building the software as they see fit. Whereas engineers design, liaise, and oversee the project, software developers write code to bring the project to life. 

Software Engineer

Sometimes used interchangeably with “Software Developer,” but when it comes to software, an engineer is responsible for the entire product development life cycle. This means the engineer notices a need (or is given a problem) and designs a holistic solution, including all its interconnected components. Before starting on their design, they consult with stakeholders and gather project requirements.

Solutions Engineer

Solutions engineers connect with customers and identify needs. Works with departments including network engineers, support and operations to build plans that improve customer experience.


A personal hackathon project in which students build an web app over the weekend in pairs or on their own.


A string is a data type used in programming used to represent text. Typically, programmers must enclose strings in quotation marks for the data to be recognized as a string and not a number or variable name.


SQL (pronounced "ess-que-el" or “see-quill”) stands for Structured Query Language. SQL is used to communicate with a database. 

Strongly Typed Language

With a strongly typed language, programmers must specify the data types each function expects (is it an Integer? a String? A dictionary or list?). This can sometimes be more time-consuming when coding but ultimately leads to code that is more readable and less error-prone. An example of a strongly typed language is Scala.


A type of template file consisting of font and layout settings to give a standardized look to certain documents.


In computer science, the syntax of a computer language is the set of rules that defines the combinations of symbols that are considered to be a correctly structured document or fragment in that language.

Skills Fund

Skills Fund is a private lending partner of Fullstack that partners with leading coding bootcamps to provide affordable loans. It offers several monthly repayment options, including:

  • Deferred, in which you don’t make payments while you’re in school and for three months after but still accrue interest.
  • Interest-only, in which you make low, interest-only payments about one month after your program starts and continue those payments for three months after the program ends.
  • Immediate, in which you start making full payments about one month after your program starts, for students who qualify.
Technical Architect

A technical architect is responsible for overall technical project direction and product. They predict and anticipate requirements, have strategies and plans in place, and ask the right questions at the right time.

Technology Consultants

Technology Consultants work with clients to help them transform the way they use technology.
Traditionally, these transformations have been geared toward improving business processes,
reducing costs, maximizing use of tech opportunities, and more. 


A superset of JavaScript that adds optional static typing to the language. 

User Experience (UX) Designer

UX designers have a psychological/design-based skill set. They wireframe and create
mock-ups of the user flow for an app. They also design the experience of using the app.

User Experience Engineer (UXE)

A UXE is a combination of UX Designer and UI Developer—they
are designers who can code. UXEs possess the skill-set of a front-end or UI engineer, but with working knowledge of UX design principles. Their primary domain focuses on the design/UI component layer of an application and steers away from the middleware layer between front-end and back-end development.

User Interface (UI) Developer

UI developers are responsible for developing the code that makes the user experience work. They build out the interface that the UX team designs. They have robust front-end development and JavaScript knowledge.

University of North Florida (UNF)

Located in Jacksonville, Florida, UNF is one of Fullstack’s university partners. The first part-time bootcamp offered was in web development; a cybersecurity bootcamp will launch in 2020.

University of San Diego (USD)

Located in San Diego, California, USD is one of Fullstack’s university partners. Its first part-time bootcamp focused on cybersecurity. In 2020, USD and Fullstack will offer part-time and full-time bootcamps in web development.

Version Control

Version control is used to manage multiple versions of computer files and programs. A version control system, or VCS, provides two primary data management capabilities. It allows users to 1) lock files so they can only be edited by one person at a time, and 2) track changes to files.

Web Development Fellowship (WDF)

Fullstack Academy’s Web Development Fellowship (WDF) is a no-cost, immersive software engineering program for New Yorkers offered in partnership with NYC’s Tech Talent Pipeline.

White Hat Hacker

Fullstack Cybersecurity Bootcamp Students become white hat hackers. ”The term "white hat" in internet slang refers to an ethical computer hacker, or a computer security expert, who specializes in penetration testing and in other testing methodologies that ensures the security of an organization's information systems. A white hat hacker hacks under good intentions with permission, and a black hat hacker has malicious intent.


At Fullstack Academy, we’re welcoming and respectful of women, including trans women and those who are nonbinary, gender nonconforming, and any others who identify as a woman, so our Grace Hopper Program is focused on providing a safe and inclusive learning environment.


Stands for “Extensible Application Markup Language” and is pronounced “zam-uhl.” XAML is a markup language developed by Microsoft and is used for creating application interfaces. It is similar to HTML, which defines the content of a webpage.

Y Combinator

Y Combinator is a seed accelerator launched in March 2005 and has been used to launch over 2,000 companies including Stripe, Airbnb, Cruise Automation, DoorDash, Coinbase, Instacart, and Dropbox. It also backed Fullstack Academy.


Zovio, Fullstack Academy’s parent company since 2019, is a publicly held, education technology company based in Phoenix, Arizona.